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Ventilator Induced Lung Injury (VILI)

This is lung damage caused by mechanical ventilation. The main elements of this are:

Barotrauma: damage to the lungs as a result of high airway pressures, especially plateau Paw over 30 CmH2O.

Volutrauma: damage to the lungs as a result of high tidal volumes (more than 6ml/kg in patients with ARDS).

Atelactrauma: damage to the lungs as a result of cyclical collapse (atelactasis) and opening of the alveoli. This is prevented by the use of an appropriate level of PEEP.

Oxygen toxicity: damage to the lungs as a result of prolonged exposure to high FiO2. The mechanism is uncertain, but it is thought that high FiO2 results in the generation of high levels of free radicals which are toxic to lung tissues.

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