Delirium in ICU
Few studies have reviewed the additional impact delirium makes in determining outcome for critically ill patients.
Delirium is an independent risk factor for mortality: in the ICU, in hospital and at 6 months.
2. ICU Morbidity:
Those who survive have a longer hospital stay, fewer ventilator-free days and more failed tracheal extubations, self-extubations and dislodgement of catheters/lines.
3. Cognitive and psychological sequelae:
Prolonged periods of delirium in critically ill patients are associated with a higher incidence of cognitive impairment, including dementia at 3 months after hospital discharge. Rates of mental health diseases, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are high following critical care. Clinically significant depression occurs in as many as 30% of ICU survivors whilst 15-40% experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.
The severity and duration of delirium has a financial impact. Delirium is associated with a 39% higher expenditure in ICU and 31% higher overall hospital costs.